The cost effectiveness of a telephone-based pharmacy advisory service to improve adherence to newly prescribed medicines

Elliott, R.A., Barber, N., Clifford, S. and Horne, R. (2008) The cost effectiveness of a telephone-based pharmacy advisory service to improve adherence to newly prescribed medicines. Pharmacy World and Science, 30 (1). pp. 17-23. 10.1007/s11096-007-9134-y.

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DOI: 10.1007/s11096-007-9134-y


Objective This “proof of concept” study aimed to assess the cost effectiveness of pharmacists giving advice via telephone, to patients receiving a new medicine for a chronic condition, in England. Methods The self-regulatory model (SRM) theory was used to guide development of our intervention and used in training pharmacists to adopt a patient-centred approach. Non-adherence to new medicines for chronic conditions develops rapidly so we developed a study intervention in which a pharmacist telephoned patients two weeks after they had started a new medicine for a chronic condition. Patients were included if they were 75 or older, or were suffering from stroke, cardiovascular disease, asthma, diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, and were randomized into treatment or control arms. Main outcome measures were non-adherence and cost to the UK NHS, obtained via a questionnaire sent two months after starting therapy. Cost of the intervention was also included. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were generated. Results Five hundred patients were recruited. At 4-week follow-up, non-adherence was significantly lower in the intervention group (9% vs 16%, p = 0.032). The number of patients reporting medicine-related problems was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control, (23% vs 34% p = 0.021). Mean total patient costs at 2-month follow-up (median, range) were intervention: £187.7 (40.6, 4.2–2484.3); control: £282.8 (42, 0–3804) (p < 0.0001). The intervention was dominant (less costly and more effective). If the decision maker is not willing to pay anything for one extra adherent patient, there is still a 90% probability that the intervention is cost effective. Conclusions These findings suggest that pharmacists can meet patients’ needs for information and advice on medicines, soon after starting treatment. While a larger trial is needed to confirm that the effect is real and sustained, these initial findings suggest the study intervention may be effective, at least in the short term, with a reduced overall cost to the health provider.

Item Type:Article
Additional Information:Full text available electronically from the School of Pharmacy Library.
Uncontrolled Keywords:Patient adherence - Economic evaluation - Randomised controlled trial - Pharmacist - England - Telephone service
Departments, units and centres:Department of Practice and Policy > Centre for Behavioural Medicine
ID Code:1115
Journal or Publication Title:Pharmacy World and Science
Deposited By:Library Staff
Deposited On:20 Nov 2008 15:07
Last Modified:16 Jun 2011 15:44

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