Silva, E., Lopez-Espinosa, M.J., Molina-Molina, J-M., Fernández, M., Olea, N. and Kortenkamp, A. (2006) Lack of activity of cadmium in in vitro estrogenicity assays. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 216 (1). pp. 20-28. 10.1016/j.taap.2006.04.002.
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Prompted by reports about strong estrogenic effects of cadmium, attempts were made to reproduce these observations using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the E-Screen assays. For the first time, possible activation of the Src/MAPK pathway was also investigated. In the YES, only a slight activation (10% of a maximal effect) of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) was observed at cadmium concentrations between 5 x 10(-7) M and 5 x 10(-6) M. In the E-Screen assay, carried out by two laboratories, the heavy metal was without observable cell proliferative effects when tested in the range between 6 x 10(-11) M and 1 x 10(-5) M. However, in both assays, cadmium led to a reduction of the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2). Treatment of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with 1 x 10(-7) M cadmium failed to induce phosphorylation of Src and the MAP kinases Erk1 and Erk2-effects shown to occur with E2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF). In summary, we were unable to confirm the strong estrogenicity of cadmium reported recently by a number of laboratories. This apparent absence of effects in our hands is not due to a lack of uptake of the metal or to effective protection against cadmium by high levels of glutathione or metallothionein, since toxicity and an antagonism of E2 responses were observed both in the YES and the E-Screen.
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Cadmium; Heavy metal; Estrogen; Endocrine disrupter; E-Screen; YES; Signalling pathways; MAP kinases; Estrogen receptor|
|Departments, units and centres:||Department of Pharmacology > Centre for Toxicology|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology|
|Deposited By:||Library Staff|
|Deposited On:||23 Jun 2011 12:40|
|Last Modified:||23 Jun 2011 12:40|
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