Synergisms with mixtures of xenoestrogens: a reevaluation using the method of isoboles.

Kortenkamp, A. and Altenburger, R. (1998) Synergisms with mixtures of xenoestrogens: a reevaluation using the method of isoboles. Science of the Total Environment, 221 (1). pp. 59-73. 10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00261-7.

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DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00261-7


There are concerns about possible combination effects of environmental chemicals with oestrogenic activity and their implications for human health. Such chemicals are present in complex mixtures in our environment. A number of studies searching for possible synergistic interactions between xenoestrogens have appeared in the literature. However, in these studies no account was taken of established concepts and methods for analysing combination effects. In the present review, we highlight conceptual issues which may be useful for a sound analysis of the effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens. We find that much published work suffers from an undue focus on measuring effects of mixtures at only one dose level. Assessments of combination effects are frequently complicated by a lack of information on dose-response relationships. Some studies which purportedly show absence of synergy have in fact overlooked synergisms.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Environmental chemicals; Xenoestrogens; Combination effects; Synergistic interactions; Dose–response relationships
Departments, units and centres:Department of Pharmacology > Centre for Toxicology
ID Code:2264
Journal or Publication Title:Science of the Total Environment
Deposited By:Library Staff
Deposited On:23 Jun 2011 14:47
Last Modified:23 Jun 2011 14:47

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