Understanding local Mediterranean diets: a multidisciplinary pharmacological and ethnobotanical approach.

Heinrich, M. and Local Food-Nutraceutical Consortium, . (2005) Understanding local Mediterranean diets: a multidisciplinary pharmacological and ethnobotanical approach. Pharmacological Research, 52 (4). pp. 353-366. 10.1016/j.phrs.2005.06.005.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2005.06.005

Abstract

Epidemiological data indicate a beneficial effect of Mediterranean diets on human health, especially on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. These observations are supported by recent intervention studies. However, very little is known about the current role of local Mediterranean food products, which are consumed on a less regular basis and their contribution to a healthy diet. The European consortium "Local Food-Nutraceuticals" collected 127 locally consumed wild or semi-wild plants in three Mediterranean countries, i.e. Greece, Italy, and Spain, in order to assess their ethnobotanical features as well as their biological activities. The project also includes a second line of research, the study of local conceptions about these food resources. All pharmacological assays were conducted with ethanolic extracts prepared from the dried plant material. The biological activities of the extracts were assessed with the following 12 different assays covering a broad range of mechanisms considered crucial in the pathology of chronic, aging-related diseases. Four antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, prevention of oxyhaemoglobin bleaching, prevention of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde formation), and protection from DNA damage (Comet assay); three enzyme inhibition tests: inhibition of xanthine oxidase, inhibition of myeloperoxidase-catalysed guaiacol oxidation as well as the inhibition of acetylcholine esterase; one test investigating the inhibition of cytokine-induced cell activation (including the extracts' potential cytotoxicity); one assay measuring the anti-proliferation potential; one test assessing the anti-diabetic activity (PPARgamma) as well as one assay investigating the extracts' effect on mood disorder-related biochemical parameters (hSERT). Furthermore, the polyphenol content of all extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteaus method. The assays revealed diverse biological effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete inhibition/activation. Moreover, the experimental matrix led to the identification of a sub-set of extracts, i.e. Berberis vulgaris, Reichardia picroides, Scandix australis, Satureja montana, Thymus piperella, Lythrum salicaria and Vitis vinifera, showing high activity in a broad range of assays. In summary, the in vitro observed modulations and effects exerted by extracts derived from local food plants suggest that these plants may contribute to the observed better aging of rural Mediterranean populations.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Mediterranean diet(s); Local food; Ethnopharmacology; Food plants; Antioxidants; Polyphenols; Nutraceuticals
Departments, units and centres:Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry > Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy
ID Code:2678
Journal or Publication Title:Pharmacological Research
Deposited By:Library Staff
Deposited On:19 Jan 2012 12:56
Last Modified:19 Jan 2012 12:56

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