Lamotrigine, carbamazepine and phenytoin differentially alter extracellular levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and amino acids

Ahmad, S., Fowler, L.J. and Whitton, P.S. (2005) Lamotrigine, carbamazepine and phenytoin differentially alter extracellular levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and amino acids. Epilepsy Research, 63 (2-3). pp. 141-149. 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2005.02.002.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2005.02.002

Abstract

We have studied the effects of treatment with the anticonvulsants lamotrigine (LTG), phenytoin (PHN) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on basal and stimulated extracellular aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), taurine (TAU), GABA, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the hippocampus of freely moving rats using microdialysis. All of the drugs investigated have had inhibition of Na+ channel activity implicated as their principal mechanism of action. Neither LTG (10–20 mg/kg), PHN (20–40 mg/kg) or CBZ (10–20 mg/kg) had an effect on the basal extracellular concentrations of any of the amino acids studied with the exception of glutamate, which was decreased at the highest LTG dose. However, when amino acid transmitter levels were increased with 50 μM veratridine, LTG was found to cause a dose-dependent decrease in dialysate levels of all four amino acids, with the effect being most pronounced for glutamate. In contrast, PHN decreased extracellular aspartate levels but had no effect on evoked-extracellular GLU, TAU or GABA. Somewhat unexpectedly, CBZ did not alter the stimulated increase in the excitatory amino acids, GLU and ASP, but, rather surprisingly for an antiepileptic drug, markedly decreased that of the inhibitory substances TAU and GABA. The three drugs had differing effects on basal extracellular 5-HT and DA. LTG caused a dose-dependent decrease in both, while CBZ and PHN both increased extracellular 5-HT and DA. When extracellular 5-HT and DA was evoked by veratridine LTG had no significant effect on this, while PHN but not CBZ increased stimulated extracellular 5-HT and both PHN and CBZ augmented DA. Thus, the effects of the three drugs studied seemed to depend on whether extracellular transmitter levels are evoked or basal and the particular transmitter in question. This suggests that there are marked differences in the neurochemical mechanisms of antiepileptic drug action of the three compounds studied.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:Lamotrigine; Phenytoin; Carbamazepine; Amino acids; 5-Hydroxytryptamine; Dopamine; Hippocampus; Dialysis
Departments, units and centres:Department of Pharmacology > Department of Pharmacology
ID Code:3114
Journal or Publication Title:Epilepsy Research
Deposited By:Library Staff
Deposited On:27 Apr 2012 10:58
Last Modified:27 Apr 2012 10:58

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